Follow the news on Iraq IraqMiddle East – North Africa News Three jailed reporters charged with “undermining national security” September 15, 2006 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Two more journalists killed in Baghdad region Reporters Without Borders voiced shock and sadness today at the news of the death of two more journalists in Iraq. Safaa Ismail Inad of the newspaper Al-Watan was shot in the head on the night of 12 September. His body was found near Sadr City, in east Baghdad. Hadi Anawi Al-Joubouri, the representative of Iraqi Union of Journalists in the Diyala region, was gunned down in an ambush on a road north of the capital the previous day.“We can no longer find the words to express our outrage at this unending dark tragedy for journalists in Iraq,” the press freedom organisation said. “These two men were murdered, and we again call on the Iraqi authorities to carry out investigations, so that those responsible for these murders are arrested and tried.”Reporters Without Borders added: “Journalists have been murdered, kidnapped and attacked with complete impunity since the start of the war in Iraq. They must be given physical protection as a matter of urgency.”At total of 106 journalists and media assistants have been killed in Iraq since the start of the war in 2003. Organisation Iraq : Wave of arrests of journalists covering protests in Iraqi Kurdistan February 15, 2021 Find out more to go further Help by sharing this information News News December 16, 2020 Find out more IraqMiddle East – North Africa RSF’s 2020 Round-up: 50 journalists killed, two-thirds in countries “at peace” December 28, 2020 Find out more News RSF_en Receive email alerts
Arsenal manager Arsene Wenger 1 Arsenal fans were up to mischief again on Tuesday as the Gunners were runaway winners at the inaugural Facebook Football Awards (we don’t know either).Loyal Gooners have proved a force to be reckoned with on social media, as they followed up voting Jack Wilshere’s thunder-strike as Match of the Day’s goal of the season – despite scoring it the same day – , with voting Arsene Wenger as the Premier League’s best manager.It’s fair to say the Frenchman still divides opinion at the Emirates Stadium, yet the north Londoners still managed to get their manager to pip Premier League-winning boss Jose Mourinho, Alan Pardew – who arguably kept two teams up this season – plus England’s leading coach Garry Monk to the award.Other winners included Facebook’s Player of the Year, Alexis Sanchez, and the club itself, which was named the Best Premier League Club of the Year.Impressive really.See how the Twittersphere reacted below…
Chelsea are on course to finish top of Group E after Demba Ba’s 10th-minute goal at Stamford Bridge.Willian’s right-wing corner was headed on by Oscar and with Ba lurking, an under-pressure Daniel Georgievski appeared to knock the ball into his own net before replays showed that the Chelsea striker got the final touch.Already through to the Champions League knockout stage and knowing a victory would guarantee they progress as group winners, the Blues had made a strong start.David Luiz miscued after being found unmarked by Willian’s corner and the fit-again Oscar fired wide from the edge of the penalty area before the opener.Luiz, who has been nursing a knee problem, was recalled to the side along with Ashley Cole – the duo’s first appearance since the defeat at Newcastle on 2 November.Steaua Bucharest should have equalised when Gabriel Iancu sneaked in behind John Terry and had only keeper Mark Schwarzer to beat but dragged his shot horribly wide.But Chelsea have been dominant and would have scored again before the break had keeper Ciprian Tatarusanu not produced a reflex save to tip over Branislav Ivanovic’s close-range header from Eden Hazard’s cross.And Ba missed a great chance to double the lead early in the second half when he spooned a shot over after being teed up by Willian’s low cross.Chelsea: Schwarzer; Ivanovic, Luiz, Terry, Cole; Mikel, Lampard; Willian, Oscar, Hazard; Ba.Subs: Cech, Cahill, Ramires, De Bruyne, Mata, Schurrle, Torres.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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Rob Davies, minister of the Department of Trade and Industry, launching the Buy Back South Africa campaign in Sandton on Tuesday 20 November.(Image: DTI)MEDIA CONTACTS• Sidwell Medupe, spokespersonDepartment of Trade and Industry+27 12 394 1650+27 79 492 1774Mary AlexanderSouth African consumers and procurement managers at large companies are being urged to fight back against cheap, subsidised imports and help create and save more jobs by buying locally produced manufactured goods, in a new campaign, Buy Back SA, launched by Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies on Tuesday 19 November.The 2008 global crisis hit South African manufacturing hard, and cost the country round 300 000 jobs. In the last few years South Africa has suffered the double whammy of substantially reduced external demand for products and fierce competition from other manufacturing countries. Difficult economic conditions in the US and Europe – South Africa’s principal export markets – have been a severe knock for local manufacturers.The Buy Back SA campaign, announced at the Industrial Development Corporation offices in Sandton, Johannesburg, has been funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the Manufacturing Circle, Absa and Proudly South African.A key part of the venture is a video featuring veteran South African actor John Kani urging support of localisation and the manufacturing sector, which will be aired on national television.Watch the Buy Back SA campaign advert:The ad was paid for by both the government and private sector. “This is a clear sign of the close working relationship that is in the process of being built between government and industry, and one that we think can be strengthened and deepened in a number of ways,” Davies said.Festive season spending“We are launching the first phase of this campaign before the festive season because we want to impress upon consumers and stakeholders in the private and public sectors the importance of buying locally manufactured goods and products,” Davies said.South African manufacturers, he said, made products of good quality, available at reasonable prices.“We want to encourage people to buy these products because this has significance in terms of job creation, revenue generation and service delivery improvement.”The South African government has developed a number of policy instruments to support localisation, the minister said. These include local sectors and products – including clothing and textiles, buses, rolling stock and power pylons – the DTI has designated for government procurement under the Preferential Public Procurement Finance Act.“We have also reviewed and put in place a new policy framework for the National Industrial Participation Programme to oblige overseas companies that have benefitted from state contracts above $10-million to invest a percentage of the contract directly into the productive sectors of the economy, wherever possible in the sector in which they are involved,” Davies said.Company procurement is keyThe minister said buying local is not only for consumers.“It is also crucially about companies – especially large retailers with large procurement budgets and supply chains – supporting local manufacturers – not only because this is in the national interest but because there are very often sound commercial reasons for doing so related to total cost of ownership: after-sales service, quick response, security of supply, niche product requirements, quality assurance and so forth.”The Manufacturing Circle represents many big South African manufacturing concerns. About 80% of the country’s manufacturers procure some 40% of their input locally. Coenraad Bezuidenhout, executive director of the body, said at the campaign launch that South Africans had stopped giving preference to local goods.“For manufacturers, the last couple of years have been quite difficult,” he said.After the Manufacturing Circle, Proudly South African and Absa bank contributed the initial funding, Buy Back SA will now need another R12-million to continue the campaign.“I want to appeal to the private sector,” Davies said. “We need to expand this campaign.” He invited companies to register by emailing [email protected] precedentDavies said the Buy Back SA campaign, while a government initiative, was not inappropriate for a free market economy.In the US, the Buy America campaign was an integral part of efforts to rebuild that country’s economy after the 2008 crisis. A close partnership between the government, private sector and further education institutions, Buy America was also an effort to save and create jobs.“The US economy has reportedly created 500 000 new high-quality jobs in the manufacturing sector since 2010, with 50 000 of these directly attributable to those efforts,” Davies said.International and local competitionMany African countries are rich in commodities, but development is held back by an inability to turn those commodities into manufactured goods. The more resources countries take out of the ground and export, unprocessed, to foreign buyers, the more intrinsic capital is lost.Manufacturing creates jobs and skills, and established manufacturing industries create a base of skills, capital and production infrastructure that can cushion country against the often irrational shocks inflicted by the global economy.Other than the 2008 meltdown, the over-valuation and volatility of the rand has also undermined South Africa’s manufacturing competitiveness, as have higher electricity, transport and labour costs, and strike action.Manufacturing has also suffered from local competition. Over the past two decades, the sector’s contribution to the South African economy has been gradually eroded by other industries, particularly the services sector. In 1994, manufacturing’s contribution to GDP at market prices was 20.9%. In 2012 it was 12.4%.
South African composers Xander Kritzinger and Andrew-John Bethke will travel to South America with two male choirs to share their uniquely South African blend of sacred, classical and jazz choral works.While in South America, the two choirs will showcase the best of the South African choral tradition, performing unique blends of sacred, classical and jazz works in a number of South African languages as well as French, Italian, Hebrew, Spanish and Latin. (Image: Cape Town Male Voice Choir, via Facebook)Mathiba MolefeTwo accomplished South African male choirs are preparing for a tour of South America in July, where they will perform award-winning compositions by two of South Africa’s leading choral composers.Composers Xander Kritzinger and Andrew-John Bethke took top honours at the Choral Composition Competition facilitated by Ekurhuleni’s Cenestra Male Choir and the Cape Town Male Voice Choir (CTMVC), sponsored by the National Lottery.Along with a chance to perform in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, the two composers each received R10,000 and the respect of South Africa’s choral community. Kritzinger and Bethke received the recognition for their original compositions In Die Skadus van my Siel and A Prayer for Africa, respectively.Michael Dingaan, conductor of the Rand Afrikaans University Chorale choir, and German choral conductor and lecturer Professor Martin Berger were the judges, together with the musical directors of Cenestra and the CTMVC.“The aim of the competition was to unearth talented South African composers and bring back a focus to male choir singing,” said Lewis Rabkin, chairperson of the CTMVC.“The competition showcases the ability of South African choral composers, as we are not yet fully tapping into local potential and talent.“The grant from the National Lotteries Commission has made it possible for us to co-ordinate the Composition Competition and to send our two choirs overseas,” said Rabkin.Kritzinger and BethkeApart from being an award-winning composer and accomplished musician, Dr Andrew-John Bethke also acts as the director of music at the Grahamstown Cathedral. (Image: Diocese of Grahamstown, via Facebook)Hailing from Cape Town, organist and composer Bethke is the former director of music at Grahamstown Cathedral and Rhodes Choir conductor. Some of his other works have already been performed abroad.Commenting on his winning composition, Bethke said: “I wanted to write a piece which attempted to pull together traditional South African musical techniques and languages, rooting the piece strongly in South African traditional culture.”Before becoming an award-winning composer and renowned musician, Xander Kritzinger was a member of the greatly acclaimed Drakensberg Boys’ Choir. (Image: Xander Kritzinger, via Facebook)Kritzinger kicked off his musical career singing in the Drakensberg Boys Choir before becoming a music teacher and choirmaster of Stellenbosch High Choir and the Viva Cantare Community Choir, where he works today.Speaking about his composition, In Die Skadus van my Siel, which means “In the shadows of my soul” in Afrikaans, he says: “I wrote it at my beach house while listening to the ocean roaring. The house always brings fond memories and while being there one often tends to think about people who are no longer with us. They still dwell in the shadows of our souls, even after time.“I did not expect that the composition would win a prize, but I am delighted and honoured that the piece will be performed.”The tourWhile in South America, the two choirs will showcase the best of the South African choral tradition, performing unique blends of sacred, classical and jazz works in a number of South African languages as well as French, Italian, Hebrew, Spanish and Latin.Members of the choirs will also participate in workshops and master classes at the Melodia! South American Music Festival in which they are performing in Argentina and Uruguay.On 24 June, the CTMVC will present a preview of the tour programme at a gala farewell concert at Hugo Lambrecht’s Auditorium in Parow.All the proceeds from the concert will go to Link2Grow, a non-profit organisation that aims to empower women in Cape Town by linking those who have needs with those who have the resources to address them.
Air-sealing the plumbing ventsAttics are cold in the winter and warm in the summer. Since they are vented through the soffit they are also drafty spaces. The attic could become an energy sink without lots of insulation and good air-sealing details.Although we placed all the washrooms on one side of the house, it was pretty much impossible to tie everything into one main vent stack. The service cavity on the ceiling is 2×4 strapping on the flat so there just isn’t enough room to route each vent to a common place and tie them together before the vent goes into the attic. Instead, there are three individual stacks which are drilled up through the top plates in the exterior service wall.I knew there would be little distance between the edge of the pipe and the top plate of the exterior 2×8 wall. I needed to have enough OSB to tape/seal my gasket. My plumber, Melvin Way, drilled through the top plate of the exterior wall with a hole saw slightly bigger than the 2-inch pipe diameter. He kept the pipe as close to the inside edge of the plate as possible so there would be enough OSB in the attic to provide a surface to air-seal. He stubbed up through the attic with a vent that was about 12 inches high so I could slip the gasket down over the pipe (see Image #10 below).When I air-sealed the ducts for my ERV and the air intake for the wood stove, I used Roflex gaskets from 475 High Performance Building Supply. They were pre-made and worked well. Since then, a friend of mine told me to make my own gaskets using EPDM liner made for backyard ponds. So I gave it a try. I cut the EPDM to about a 6-inch square, centered the gasket over the end of the pipe and used a utility knife to create a star shaped hole in the gasket using the pipe as a guide. The idea was to cut the hole so the gasket would fit snugly around the vent.Using my trusty Ryobi battery-powered caulk gun (a tool I highly recommend), I dispensed a good bead of acoustical sealant both around the pipe and at the edge of where the gasket would lay on the ceiling (Image #11 below). I prefer Mulco Acoustik for air-sealing.I pulled the gasket down over the pipe slowly, pressed it into the acoustical sealant, and then apply 3M 8067 tape around the edges. I used a J-roller to apply pressure to the taped surface to ensure adhesion. I finished the detail with 3M tape (see Image #12 below).The 2-inch vents are connected to a 3-inch stack in the attic, which exists the roof on the north side of the house.I think this is a redundant air-sealing system that is simple to implement and doesn’t require fancy materials. As much as I don’t like drilling holes in the air barrier, I’m pretty confident that these details will bring my air barrier back to Passive House airtightness. How to Provide Makeup Air for a Wood StoveProviding Outdoor Combustion Air for a Wood StoveAll About Wood StovesShould Green Homes Burn Wood? BLOGS BY DAVID GOODYEAR Blower Door Test Comes Up RosesWrapping Up the Air BarrierInsulation and an Air BarrierInstalling Windows and DoorsFoam Sheathing and Window DetailsFraming and Air SealingA Well Insulated SlabFootings and Frost WallsA Final Design and Energy ModelingAn Introduction to the Flatrock Passive House Conduit carries the wiringPlans called for a piece of conduit to be routed through the exterior 2×8 wall and into the electrical box. The conduit would be sealed to the OSB air barrier on the interior with tape and acoustical sealant. Once the wire is routed through the conduit, the conduit will be filled with spray foam. The detail looked fine on paper. However, drilling through a wall with fiberglass insulation is an uncertain task; fiberglass has a bad habit of wrapping itself around anything that spins.With than in mind, we came up with the following procedure:(1) Drill a 1 1/8-inch hole through the exterior block on the wall (see the image at the top of this page).(2) Drill through the 3 inches of foam slowly until the bit breaches the back of the foam and the fiberglass insulation is visible.(3) Insert the 3/4-inch conduit (1 1/8-inch outside diameter) from the outside and compress the insulation against the exterior side of the OSB. (My experience is that you can drill a hole through compressed insulation.)(4) Insert a long 3/4-inch spade it into the conduit and push it through until you feel the insulation at the end of the conduit (see Image #2 below).(5) Drill until the tip of the spade bit just pierces the interior face of the OSB.(6) From the interior, drill the piloted hole with a 1 1/8-inch spade bit until it just passes through the OSB (see Image #3 below).After removing the conduit, I inspected the hole with a small flashlight. The insulation still filled the cavity — it hadn’t been disrupted by the drill. Although the hole was drilled with a 3/4-inch bit, there was enough give in the insulation that a 1 1/8-inch conduit easily passed through, as long as it was guided carefully.After drilling is complete, the opening for the receptacle is cut with a jig saw. (I used a hole saw for the octagonal boxes for exterior lights.) The conduit is glued to a 3/4-inch threaded section, passed through the electrical box and secured with a locking screw. The box/conduit assembly is the inserted into the opening in the trim block and secured with some screws (see Image #4 below).On the inside, the conduit was caulked to the OSB with acoustical sealant. I made a tape gasket with 3M All Weather Flashing tape and pushed it into the acoustical sealant (see Image #5 below). The gasket was taped around the conduit for an airtight installation. Once the wiring is installed, the conduit will be filled with spray foam. Flue for a wood stoveThe original design for the house called for an interior stove pipe, mainly because interior flues stay warmer and warm chimneys perform better than cold ones.After a fire has been lit, buoyant gases rise through the flue, raising the temperature inside the pipe. As the chimney gets warmer, this effect is more pronounced. A pressure differential is created between the stove air intake and the chimney that causes draft. Once a draft has been established it can be maintained by supplying heat. When compared to an interior installation, a chimney installed outside the building envelope needs more energy to establish and maintain an effective draft.My internet searches really haven’t provided any hard numbers regarding the amount of extra energy required. Someday I may revisit this problem to see if there is some way to estimate the difference between the two scenarios.Because of our floor plan, there was really one place to install the stove. But there were some uncertainties about the interior installation that I was not happy about. They included the spacing of the floor joists, the proximity to the bedroom upstairs, having to create a chase in the middle of one of the bedroom walls, running the air intake under the slab, and a lack of an airtight installation. It all added up to a complex problem that had a simple solution: Move the stove to an exterior wall.When passing through a combustible wall, a stove pipe requires a radiation shield (thimble). The options for an airtight stove thimble in our marketplace are few and far between. After some research, I found the Excel chimney made by ICC a Canadian manufacturer. The thimble required a framed opening of 10 inches square and can fit into a wall with a thickness of 12 inches or less. A decorative telescoping section can be used to ensure that the stove pipe exits the assembly 4 inches beyond the wall.Combustion air will come from a 5-inch duct, equipped with a blast gate to close off air flow, that goes through the porch wall and terminates with a hood vent. After it emerges from the house, the stove pipe goes to a clean-out tee, then up through the porch attic and through the roof.Photos #6 through #9 below show steps in the installation process. RELATED ARTICLES Dealing with penetrations in the air barrier has definitely been a source of stress during this project. Although my plans have the construction details, implementing them has pretty much been left to me. Some penetrations needed careful thought and planning to avoid compromising the integrity of the air barrier and fouling up the insulation in the wall cavity.There are five wiring penetrations to the outside: three receptacles and two lights. Mounting the light/receptacle blocks to the exterior of the building could have been a mess if there was no foresight. It is hard to attach a trim block to a foam wall.The only solution was to attach blocking to the studs directly behind the foam before the cavities were insulated. I used 2×6 lumber for that this purpose. Each block had to sit flush against the foam and had to be thick enough so that the siding would be just flush with the front of the block. I drilled a hole in each corner of the block and used 6-inch screws that went through the foam and into the blocking. Once the siding is finished and the electrical elements are installed, I will install a small plug in each hole. Without some thinking ahead, this would have caused a lot of headaches. Editor’s Note: This is one of a series of blogs by David Goodyear describing the construction of his new home in Flatrock, Newfoundland, the first in the province built to the Passive House standard. The first installment of the GBA blog series was titled An Introduction to the Flatrock Passive House. For a list of Goodyear’s earlier blogs on this site, see the “Related Articles” sidebar below; you’ll find his complete blog here.
DefinitionA posterior cruciate ligament injury is a partial or complete tearing or stretching of any part of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), which is located inside the knee joint.Alternative NamesCruciate ligament injury – posterior; PCL injury; Knee injury – posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); Hyperextended kneeConsiderationsYour doctor will perform a physical examination to check for signs of PCL injury. This includes moving the knee joint in various ways.Your doctor may also check if there is fluid in the knee joint. This test may show bleeding into the joint.These tests may be ordered:Knee MRIKnee joint x-rayCausesThe posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the strongest ligament in the knee. It extends from the top-rear surface of the tibia (bone between the knee and ankle) to the bottom-front surface of the femur (bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee).The ligament prevents the knee joint from posterior instability. This means it prevents the tibia from moving too much and going behind the femur.The PCL is usually injured by overextending the knee (hyperextension). This can happen if you land awkwardly after jumping. The PCL can also become injured from a direct blow to the flexed knee, such as smashing your knee in a car accident (called “dashboard injury”) or falling hard on a bent knee.Most PCL injuries occur with other ligament injuries and severe knee trauma. Often the knee is dislocatedand thenerves and blood vessels are injured. If you suspect PCL injury, it is important to be seen by a doctor right away.advertisementSymptomsKnee swelling and tenderness in the space behind the knee (popliteal fossa)Knee joint instabilityKnee joint painFirst AidAt first, a PCL injury is treated by:Checking the pulse and circulation in the areaSplintingApplying ice to the areaElevating the joint (above the level of the heart)Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for painLimit physical activity until the swelling is down, motion is normal, and the pain is gone. Physical therapy can help you regain joint and leg strength. If the injury happens suddenly (acute) or you have a high activity level, you may need surgery. This may be either knee arthroscopy or open surgical reconstruction.Age has an effect on treatment. Younger patients are more likely to have problems without surgery, because chronic instability may lead to arthritis symptoms many years later. Many people do well without surgery. Injuries in which the bone is pulled off with the ligament, or multiple ligaments are injured need to be repaired with surgery.When to Contact a Medical ProfessionalCall your health care provider if:You have symptoms of PCL injuryYou are being treated for PCL injury and instability in your knee worsensPain or swelling return after they went awayYour injury does not appear to be getting better with timeYou re-injure your kneeYou have loss of sensation and decreased circulation in your footPCL injuriesoften occurwith other ligament injuries or severe knee trauma. You should be checked early for these other conditions.PreventionUse proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. Many cases are accidents and are not preventable.ReferencesHonkamp NJ, Ranawat AS, Harner CD. Knee: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries in the adult. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 23, section E.Honkamp NJ, Ranawat AS, Harner CD. Knee: Posterior cruciate ligament injuries in the child. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 23, section E.Review Date:4/16/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.