Fords heavyduty trucks are set to be even more capable in 2020

first_img Ford More From Roadshow 0 Enlarge ImageI bet that 7.3-liter V8 sounds pretty great when you’re out stumpin’. Ford The world of heavy-duty trucks is just a little different than that of light-duty trucks and passenger cars. With a near-total focus on work and productivity, upgrades in this arena tend to make life easier for those at work, not those at play. To that end, two new upgrades for Ford’s 2020 F-Series Super Duty should help the workforce get through the day a little easier.7.3-liter V8One major update for the 2020 F-Series Super Duty is the inclusion of a new 7.3-liter gas V8. According to Ford, this engine offers best-in-class output for gas V8s with 430 horsepower and 475 pound-feet of torque. Nearly all Super Duty trucks will see the engine mated to a new heavy-duty 10-speed automatic transmission, except for the F-650 and F-750, which will still use the old (but still beefy) six-speed automatic. To get things moving more quickly, this overhead-valve V8 produces over 400 lb-ft of its max torque at just 1,500 rpm, with the peak arriving at 4,000 rpm. To aid durability, there’s a forged steel crankshaft with “extra-large” main bearings, and there are cooling jets for the pistons to help keep temperatures kosher under heavy load. The 7.3-liter will first be available on F-250 and F-350 Super Duty pickup trucks. Eventually, it will expand (albeit in a slightly lower output, 350 hp and 468 lb-ft) to become standard on the F-450 chassis cab, F-550, F-600, F-650 and F-750. It’ll also show up on the F-53 and F-59 stripped chassis models, as well as the E-Series cutaway. Eventually, Ford will also introduce a different engine calibration that keeps fuel economy in mind, but the automaker didn’t say when that would happen.ford-73-v8Enlarge ImageDon’t worry, those cutaway holes are only for show. Ford doesn’t give you the engine like that. Ford Standard power takeoffIf you’re wondering how truck-chassis dumpers or snowplows get their power, it’s from a device called the power takeoff, which connects to the powertrain to provide mechanical or hydraulic power to accessories like cranes, boom lifts or the aforementioned. Ford’s second heavy-duty announcement is the addition of a standard power takeoff unit, which produces up to 300 pound-feet of stationary torque. It won’t be standard on every model, though. It’s limited to the F-Series Super Duty chassis cab with the 6.7-liter diesel V8, but it’s still available as an option for Super Duty pickups and chassis cabs with the new 7.3-liter V8. It should also appear on F-650 and F-750 models with the six-speed automatic, but Ford will announce more info to that end at a later date.Whereas some power takeoff systems only work when the engine is stationary, the one bolted to Ford’s heavy-duty 10-speed automatic is a “live” setup, which means it can be used while the vehicle is in motion. A snowplow isn’t very useful if it can’t push snow around, after all. ford-10atEnlarge ImageFord didn’t supply any pictures of the power takeoff unit, so here’s a shot of the heavy-duty 10-speed automatic, instead. Ford Trucks Auto Tech 2018 Volvo XC60 T8: More hustle from a hybrid Share your voicecenter_img Post a comment Tags Ford 2016 Ford Explorer review: Go road-tripping in Ford’s updated, EcoBoost-powered SUV 2019 Ford F-150 review: Popular pickup keeps on truckin’last_img read more

Researchers simulate information signaling between cells

first_img Citation: Researchers simulate information signaling between cells (2015, October 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-simulate-cells.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Many natural systems are described by dynamics of traveling wavefronts. Sharp traveling fronts are employed in countless phenomena, including fluid convection, chemical reactions, and cellular phenomena. Living systems use front propagation encoded in biochemical reactions to communicate and perform computations, but these dynamics are difficult to study in three dimensions (i.e., in vivo). Thus, to understand how propagating gene expression fronts work in complex living systems, it is important to study how they work in minimal systems. Artificial cells act like the real thing More information: “Propagating gene expression fronts in a one-dimensional coupled system of artificial cells.” Nature Physics (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nphys3469AbstractLiving systems employ front propagation and spatiotemporal patterns encoded in biochemical reactions for communication, self-organization and computation. Emulating such dynamics in minimal systems is important for understanding physical principles in living cells and in vitro. Here, we report a one-dimensional array of DNA compartments in a silicon chip as a coupled system of artificial cells, offering the means to implement reaction–diffusion dynamics by integrated genetic circuits and chip geometry. Using a bistable circuit we programmed a front of protein synthesis propagating in the array as a cascade of signal amplification and short-range diffusion. The front velocity is maximal at a saddle-node bifurcation from a bistable regime with travelling fronts to a monostable regime that is spatially homogeneous. Near the bifurcation the system exhibits large variability between compartments, providing a possible mechanism for population diversity. This demonstrates that on-chip integrated gene circuits are dynamical systems driving spatiotemporal patterns, cellular variability and symmetry breaking. Explore further © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: Nature Physics A group of researchers in Israel and the United States report in Nature Physics the results of a study of a one-dimensional array of artificial cells in a silicon chip—in essence, a system of coupled cells in which the researchers could implement reaction-diffusion effects and study how they propagate among cells.Artificial cells?Artificial cells are engineered systems of various kinds that simulate a number of functions of biological cells. In this case, the array of cells consists of 15 compartments inside which the researchers patterned gene circuits. The compartments simulate the microencapsulation of the biological membranes of cells, separating the internal cellular mechanisms from other “cells” while allowing the exchange of small molecules.Carved into a silicon substrate, the compartments were fed by a main flow channel and interconnected by fork-shaped capillaries. Cell extract from Escherichia coli was fed continuously through the main channel. The researchers were interested in how biological multicellular systems use traveling wavefronts to communicate. Signals dissipate over short distances within a medium, so cells accomplish long-range transmission of information by consecutive local cell-to-cell interactions. In living systems, the transmission models are too complex to study, but this isolated array of artificial cells revealed interesting dynamics likely applicable to the study of actual multicellular systems.Though front propagation has been studied in the past, yielding results that have applications in science and industry, the authors note that this is the first time anyone has created a synthetic, spatially coupled cellular system capable of long-range cell-to-cell communication. The first compartment was patterned with a small amount of starter protein construct, and as the medium flowed through the channels, the researchers found that the DNA starter initiated diffusion of the activator to the neighboring compartment. This created an autocatalytic reaction in which the neighboring compartment created a new source of activator. The researchers characterized expression-diffusion dynamics by measuring the timescales between the diffusion of proteins along the capillaries, which occurred over minutes, and the gene expression dynamics in the compartments, which changed over hours. In essence, the researchers created a system of autocatalyzing protein synthesis in which the activator signal cascaded through the compartments, which amplified it and diffused it to neighboring compartments. The authors write, “The spatial organization of DNA circuits together with short interaction length, set by the array geometry, will allow integrating long-range signaling with local information processing reactions based on gene expression, in analogy to multicellular systems, electronic circuits, and neural networks.”last_img read more