(Visited 1,547 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 There’s no stretching the truth any more. Cassini data have led all the ringmasters to the conclusion that the rings of Saturn are not billions of years old.Saturn’s rings seen from Voyager 2, 1981For over 15 years, Creation-Evolution Headlines has reported the tug-of-war between planetary scientists on the age of Saturn’s rings (e.g., 2/12/02). Indications that the rings are much younger than Saturn’s assumed age (4.5 billion years) go back to the Voyager missions. Several lines of evidence pointed to youth, but planetary scientists tugged back at the evidence, inventing ways to keep the rings billions of years old. Now, they have given up. Reality won the match: the rings are young!Paul Voosen reports in Science Magazine, “Saturn’s rings are solar system newcomers.”The rings of Saturn seem like permanent fixtures in the solar system, firing the imaginations of poets and scientists alike. But observations made this year by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft in the final months of its existence, and reported here last week at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), show they are surprisingly youthful: Until a few hundred million years ago, they did not exist. Saturn acquired its jewels relatively late in life. If any astronomers had gazed at the sky in the time of the dinosaurs, they might have seen a bare and boring Saturn.Cassini high dives through Saturn rings in 2017 (JPL).Of course, to moyboy scientists, ‘young’ is a relative term. The new estimate of 200 million years max doesn’t sound young to most people. It is, however, only about 5% of the assumed age of the solar system. That conclusion leaves secular planetary scientists in a quandary: it will now require ad hoc special conditions to explain the rings in a separate theory, apart from the general theory of the solar system’s formation. Not only that, it will require a relatively recent event that makes humans look special, because we live in a rare epoch when the rings exist to be observed and enjoyed by sentient beings.The brightness of the rings was a primary evidence for youth, because rings should get dirty over time from meteorite bombardment. Added to that, the B-ring—thickest of all—turns out to be less dense than thought. The clincher came from the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA), which measured far more dust than expected:After 12 years of painstaking measurements and analysis, the Cosmic Dust Analyzer, a Cassini experiment that measures small particles, has found that the micrometeorite flux is large—“inconsistent with an old ring,” says Sascha Kempf, a space physicist at the University of Colorado (CU) in Boulder who led the work. Dust from the outer solar system moves more slowly than expected, which allows Saturn’s gravity to pull more of it in. The flux, about 10 times higher than estimates from before the Cassini mission, suggests a ring age of between 150 million and 300 million years, or even younger. “Our measurement is the most direct way you can measure it,” Kempf adds. “There’s not much you can do about it. It has to be young.”Dr. Larry Esposito enjoying Cassini’s first view of Saturn’s rings, July 1, 2004 (photo by David Coppedge)How are the scientists dealing with this quandary? Basically, Voosen writes, they are appealing to the Stuff Happens Law (i.e., chance). Leading ringmasters Larry Esposito and Jeff Cuzzi have been worrying about this for decades. Eleven years ago, Esposito proposed a thick B-ring to keep at least that part going for a billion years (2/04/16). Now look what they say:In the early 1980s, Esposito says, the two Voyager spacecraft flew past Saturn and returned data that seemed to point toward a low ring mass—and a possible youthful age. But Voyager scientists had a hard time coming up with a compelling scenario to explain it—the notion that a saturnian moon might have shattered at a time when the solar system would have had few potential asteroids or comets to ram into it seemed far-fetched. “The best idea we had then was that we’re just lucky,” Esposito says. “I’m back to square one.”Scientists have only begun to study how the ring-forming collision could have happened. “Part of the reluctance for everyone to leap off this bridge into the unknown is we haven’t had any kind of feasible explanation,” Cuzzi says. It’s time for new ideas, he adds. “The solar system could be full of surprises like this.”Cuzzi’s last statement could be taken as a covering model for future upsets. Or, it could be taken as an indication that planetary scientists don’t understand the solar system as much TV specials make it seem.The situation is analogous to the fossil record for Darwinism. Theory predicts gradual change and clear lines of descent, but the evidence keeps showing abrupt appearance, living fossils and ‘convergent evolution’ (hear Casey Luskin talk about this on ID the Future). As I see it, the evidence is baffling for Darwinians because Darwinism is false. Similarly, the youthful rings of Saturn are baffling to secular planetary scientists because the solar system is young.I had occasion to meet these scientists when I was at JPL, and I spoke with them on rare occasions. I was responsible for their computers at their universities, and saw them often in periodic Project Science Group meetings at the lab. They were each amicable and pleasant in person. I listened to their presentations with great interest, wondering which view would prevail. It was clear to me that nothing would dislodge their belief in billions of years, but there was a subtext that it would be very troubling to them if the rings turned out to be young. These quotes show that to be the case: they are flummoxed and dumbfounded by the evidence. They have no explanation, and they admit it.I’ve been intrigued by this mystery ever since I read about it in Astronomy Magazine and Sky & Telescope back in the 1980’s, so it was good to actually meet the experts in person. In my non-JPL science presentations, I’ve long used Saturn’s rings as one of many examples that the solar system is young. While maintaining my humility as not in their league regarding math and physics, I do find some gratification, at least in this instance, at being found right in the end.
“We have to give our best and play our A game every single game so we can reach our goal to get the gold,” said Uichico. “We’re positive and upbeat and we know that we have to do our business, this is a business and not a vacation.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Bautista silences hostile crowd, downs hometown bet Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments Uichico, Gilas confident as PH shoots for 18th basketball gold3.4K viewsSportsVentuno Web Player 4.51 LATEST STORIES Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim MOST READ Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games03:07PH billiards team upbeat about gold medal chances in SEA Games05:25PH boxing team determined to deliver gold medals for PH03:04Filipino athletes share their expectations for 2019 SEA Games00:45Onyok Velasco see bright future for PH boxing in Olympics02:25PH women’s volleyball team motivated to deliver in front of hometown crowd01:27Filipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games00:36Manny Pacquiao part of 2019 SEA Games opening ceremony KUALA LUMPUR—The Philippines has been the undisputed basketball power in the Southeast Asian Games with the most men’s basketball golds in the regional event with 17.And as the Gilas cadets start their campaign in the 2017 Games, head coach Jong Uichico said they want to enter MABA Stadium with a confidence so high they’ll bring another championship to the Philippines.ADVERTISEMENT Pagasa: Storm intensifies as it nears PAR Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo READ: Gilas cadets kick off title defense vs tough Thais“Of course, when you enter the Games, you want to be as confident as possible that you’re able to beat any team that gets in your way to win the gold,” said Uichico in Filipino Saturday at Sunway Putra Hotel.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingGilas coach Jong Uichico. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netThe likes of Kiefer Ravena, Almond Vosotros, Kevin Ferrer, Baser Amer, and Mac Belo are once again in the team that delivered the country its 16th gold in the regional games.Uichico added they have to bring out their best every game if they want to continue the country’s reign in Southeast Asia and claim their 11th straight gold medal. Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’
Magnolia’s Mark Barroca and Jio Jalalon told Chito Victolero that they’ll make up for a lackluster Game 1 while getting ready to face Barangay Ginebra in a no-tomorrow match for the Hotshots on Monday night.The dynamic point guards proved that they can walk their talk.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated CEU stays unbeaten; McDavid finally triumphs Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid MOST READ Jalalon scored 17 points and Barroca accounted for 13 as they led the Hotshots to a 106-77 ripping of the Gin Kings at Smart Araneta Coliseum to forge a deciding Game 3 in their PBA Philippine Cup quarterfinal duel.“They told me Sunday (after an 86-75 loss) that they will go all out in this game. And I’m thankful and proud that those two guys played the games true to their promise,” Victolero said in Filipino as he and his Hotshots gathered the needed momentum—and confidence—for the you-or-me match set Wednesday also at the fabled Big Dome.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsTNT kept its composure behind chief gunner Jayson Castro and held off four-time defending champion San Miguel Beer, 93-88, in the nightcap, to also force a Game 3 on Wednesday.Castro finished with 19 points and nine assists, helping the KaTropa in the stretch together with Troy Rosario and RR Pogoy. Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Duterte wants probe of SEA Games mess Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting View comments Ian Sangalang scored 21 points to lead the Hotshots, and together with Jalalon and Barroca formed a three-cornered battering ram that chopped down the hulking Gin Kings to size.Jalalon and Barroca, incidentally, combined for just seven points in the series-opening loss.The Hotshots made use of a blistering 11-0 start that kept the Kings at bay the rest of the way.Magnolia’s largest lead came up to 31 late in the final quarter.“The most important thing here was our mind-set: That we needed to go all out,” Victolero said. “This is exactly what we had hoped for—a chance to compete.”ADVERTISEMENT SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte LATEST STORIES Sol Mercado scored 13 for third-ranked Ginebra, who was so out of sorts that it stood as the team-best total in the rout.Ginebra’s imposing frontline of Greg Slaughter and Japeth Aguilar settled for just five points each following a pair of double-doubles in the series opener.“This is a short series,” Victolero said. “We’ll just have to prepare well and just hope the breaks of the next game go our way.”“But I’m liking our chances. We were able to tie it now,” he added. “With the same level of effort and desire, I think we have a chance.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next
See also Apple iOS 13: New Siri voice, camera tools, Dark Mode for iPhone New Mac Pro makes its debut, starts at $5,999 Apple gives the iPad its own OS Returning to Apple’s WWDC after 20 years, now with 5 OSes instead of 1 Get all the latest from WWDC Jul 5 • RIP, iTunes. This is what happens to your Apple music now Google Stadia is a play-anywhere streaming game platform… 1:56 Minding your privacy Advantage: iOS 13 Over the years, Apple has made keeping user data private a selling point. And unlike Google, Apple’s business is not dependent on targeted ads based on user data, instead making money on the hardware, apps and services it offers. At WWDC, Apple said it would give users greater control of location permissions with apps, choosing to share that info once and then have the app request it again if it wants it. Apple also unveiled a new sign-in method that lets you anonymously sign into websites and apps without being tracked. The feature, Sign in with Apple, will be mandatory for apps to include this fall.Google also talks up protecting user data, most recently in a New York Times opinion piece where Google CEO Sundar Pichai wrote that “privacy cannot be a luxury good offered only to people who can afford to buy premium products and services.” But Google has a tougher case to make because a major source of revenue is its ad business, based on what users search for, for example, and which videos they watch. It does take a big step in the right direction with the next version of Android: Android 10 gives users more control over what information they share through apps and services.But the two companies’ approaches to privacy show up in different ways. For example, Google is working on an update to its Chrome browser that developers say may hobble ad-blocking and privacy extensions. In contrast, Apple last year announced Safari would prevent third-party trackers from monitoring your activities across the web. Dark mode for allAdvantage: iOS 13Besides letting you switch it up from a bright white screen, turning on a dark mode can offer the benefit of preserving battery life by lighting up fewer pixels on the screen and also reducing eye strain. Google folded a dark mode into an Android Pie update earlier this year, but the company didn’t use the theme everywhere. In the early betas of Android 10, the dark theme is more evenly distributed across the mobile OS. Some of Google’s mobile apps, including Gmail and Chrome, still lack a dark mode option, however. Apple has more experience in this area. It went moody on the desktop first and rolled out a dark appearance in MacOS Mojave in 2018. In iOS 13, Apple will bring a dark theme to its mobile OS. At its Worldwide Developers Conference this week, Apple lists a broad collection of places that display the dark mode theme — from wallpaper, widgets and notifications to Calendar to Messages — and from the brief glimpse we got of it, iOS 13 should offer a more uniform dark experience. Phones WWDC 2019 Apple Event Android Update iPhone Update Tags Now playing: Watch this: 6:50 46 Photos Dark mode for iOS 13: iPhone’s dark side never looked so good 9 Photos • Apple’s Messages and FaceTime or Google’s Duo and Hangouts and Messages and … Advantage: iOS 13 Apple puts its messaging focus on FaceTime and Messages, which are hard to beat for video and text chat. Communications are encrypted end to end. The messaging handoff between iOS and MacOS devices is seamless. And you can further customize Memoji avatars. Google’s messaging approach on Android is, err, more varied, with Duo and Hangouts for voice and video calls, Google Voice for dedicated voice calls, Hangouts Meet and Chat for business communication, and Messages for text messaging. You can use the Hangouts website to continue messaging on your Mac and Windows device, and you can keep up with your Messages texts via the web version of the app. The web version is handy but not flawless, and it sometimes seems to forget it’s connected to the mobile version of the service. Messages and Memoji. CNET Google Assistant vs. Siri voice assistantAdvantage: Android 10, by a long shotApple may have been first out of the voice assistant gate in 2011 with Siri, but Google Assistant runs circles around it, and over the years, Apple has done little to close the gap. In iOS 13, Siri gets a new robot voice and picks up a few tricks here and there, like searching for WatchOS apps on the Apple Watch and being able to read and respond to incoming messages through AirPods and stream radio stations. iOS 13 will also come preloaded with Siri Shortcuts. But Siri doesn’t perform nearly as well as Google Assistant at recognizing and understanding different voices and commands. It’s this basic functionality that’s at the heart of the issue, but Google assistant is also integrated tightly into everything you do on your phone, and can proactively make recommendations by looking at your calendar and Gmail account for upcoming reservations and appointments.Google has put its assistant on every Android phones, in the $49 Google Home Mini and $299 Google Home Max, and into cars as Assistant Driving Mode, and at its recent Google I/O developer conference, the company showed off a range of Google Assistant personalization features.Siri is also widely available — working on iOS, MacOS and WatchOS devices and the HomePod. Siri shortcuts can create personalized tasks that Apple’s smart assistant can perform for you. However, Siri is still underwhelming, mostly because the database it draws from is limited, while Google rules search.Google Assistant. Andrew Hoyle/CNET Swipey keyboards Advantage: Android 10, maybe If you swipe instead of type, iOS 13 gaining a swipable keyboard is a big — but extremely belated — deal. Google has its own swipable keyboard, Gboard, and many other Android phones implement other apps like SwiftKey, into their default virtual keyboards. There is a lot to like about Gboard, especially, beyond its swiping capabilities. I like being able to apply different themes, use different languages and easily insert GIFs. Apple’s demo of QuickPath Typing, the swiping part of the iOS 13 keyboard, looks good as well, but it’s so far behind the competition, it’s hard to see this as anything but long overdue catch-up. In iOS 13, you can swipe in addition to type. Apple Mapping and exploringAdvantage: Android 10If you just need to get from here to there, Apple Maps is up to task. And with iOS 13, Apple is rebuilding Maps to include better road and pedestrian information and more precise addresses. Apple’s upcoming Maps app will also have a Look Around tool that lets you see a 3D view of a location.Google Maps has had these features for a while, however, including its own 3D mode called Street View. But Google has much more, constantly updating its Maps app to make it even more useful getting you places, in part by folding in the useful bits of its other map app, Waze. But Maps is also useful after you arrive. For example, its Explore tab lets you find a seemingly endless list of places to eat and things to do in your area.Apple Maps’ Look Around tool lets you see a 3D view of a location. Apple Shara Tibken contributed to this report. Apple did not respond to a request for comment.Originally published June 3, 2019. Update, June 6 at 3:30 a.m. PT: Added more details. WWDC 2019: A quick visual recap of Apple’s Worldwide Developers Conference keynote reading • iOS 13 vs. Android 10: iPhone beats Android in some significant ways 77 Aug 19 • iOS 13 and iPadOS: How to join the beta, use the best new features on your iPhone and iPad Jun 30 • iOS 13 and iPadOS public betas: How to download and install them now iOS 12 Android 10 (Android Q) Adobe Privacy Microsoft Office Google Microsoft Siri Apple Now playing: Watch this: Jun 14 • Apple Music vs. Apple Podcast vs. Apple TV: What’s the difference? WWDC 2019 See All Comments Without the software that powers them, iPhones and Android phones would be slabs of glass, metal and plastic. So let’s see how the upcoming mobile OSes from Apple and Google compare, now that Apple has announced iOS 13 for iPhones at its annual WWDC event. On one side of the table, iOS 13 includes a systemwide dark mode, more control over privacy settings and a bushel of improvements designed to make the iPhone more secure and easier to use. On the other side, Google’s Android 10 also brings on dark mode, a focus on privacy and useful AI enhancements.While Android 10 is in its four beta (we’ve been using it for months), iOS 13’s beta is only available for developers now, with a public beta coming in July and the final release pushing to iPhones in fall (iPhones that will be compatible with iOS 13 stretch back to the iPhone 6S). Android 10’s final release — previously codenamed Q — will ship by fall. That means we’re basing this comparison on the features Apple showed off at its developer conference and the ones we’ve seen from Google so far, and not yet on direct comparison on final devices. We’ll save that real-world battle for after the final version of iOS 13 and Android 10 come out.One final note — this piece doesn’t cover every feature that Apple or Google announced. It focuses on the main elements that we think are the most interesting, useful and important to everyday people. Here’s a more complete list of the key features in iOS 13. Apple’s iOS 13 turns to the dark side Taking, editing and sharing photosAdvantage: Android 10Google Photos offers almost everything you’d want in a photo service. It combines effortless backup and photo sharing with powerful, easy-to-use editing tools to create an essential photography tool for an Android phone. Night Site mode on Pixel phones almost by itself is enough to tip the scale to Android. Because its from Google, you can search for people, places and things to see all the images Google Photos has assigned the tag to. And the first 15GB of online storage is free.Apple Photos comes with a rich of editing tools, and in iOS 13, the app will gain even more, including the ability to adjust the intensity of portrait lighting with a slider. Apple Photos excels at recognizing faces, objects and scenes to help you sort through your images. Unfortunately, much of the app’s power is available just to Apple’s users. And the first 5GB of iCloud storage is free.Dark mode sure makes photos stand out. Screenshots by Jason Cipriani/CNET Running mobile apps in other places Advantage: iOS 13 (and MacOS) At last year’s developer conference, Apple said it would start moving some of its own iOS apps to MacOS using a new developer tool that was named Project Marzipan and is actually now named Project Catalyst.This week, Apple said it would start letting iPadOS developers bring their own iPad apps to Mac. The move should benefit developers — who will be able to more easily create an app that can run on Apple’s mobile and desktop platforms — and Mac users, who potentially get access to a richer selection of apps. Google also lets app developers move software between platforms by giving owners of recent Chromebooks access to Android apps through the Google Play Store. But the limitations of Chromebooks — they require an Internet connection, for example, and they lack popular Windows and MacOS apps such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop — also limit the usefulness of this option. An Android app on a Chromebook. Google Gaming: Arcade vs. StadiaAdvantage: Well, it depends With Apple Arcade, you’ll be able to play games on your iPhone, iPad, Mac and Apple TV devices. Interestingly, Apple at WWDC said Arcade will work with Xbox One S and PlayStation DualShock 4 controllers. Google with its Stadia service is all about streaming games and will let you play them anywhere you can find a Chrome browser. Google Stadia will have its own controller and work with third-party controllers. With Arcade coming later this year — and Stadia debuting in November — we have little to go on beyond studying video demos of each service (and playing with Stadia for a bit at the recent Game Developer Conference), but we’d suggest if you like console games and have a good internet connection, Stadia might be a good fit with its controller-driven service. If you’re a casual gamer who likes playing mobile and indie games in your spare time, Apple’s approach might be a better fit. Share your voice
Mirza Fakhrul Islam AlamgirBangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) secretary general Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir on Wednesday claimed that his party is not doing politics over quota reform movement and the health of the party’s jailed chairperson Khaleda Zia.“The party, as a big political party, is only projecting truths before the people,” Mirza Fakhrul told a human chain organised in front of the National Press Club in the capital.Bangladesh Sammilito Peshajibi Parishad, a pro-BNP platform of professionals, organised the human chain demanding release and treatment of BNP chairperson and former prime minister Khaleda Zia.“The quota reform movement of the unemployed youths is justified. The prime minister [Sheikh Hasina] announced in anger in parliament that there would be no quota, but now she is saying there is no scope to go beyond the High Court verdict on the issue. She has clearly made a U-turn.”Dwelling on the court decision on the quota system in the public service, the BNP leader said the court has not given any verdict on it, rather it made an observation.He also alleged that the prime minister is using the court whenever it suits her interests.Fakhrul also criticized ruling Bangladesh Awami League general secretary Obaidul Quader for his remark that the BNP is doing ‘dirty politics’ over Khaleda’s health.“Quader is misguiding the people by this kind of remarks. Khaleda Zia has been kept in jail in an ‘utterly false and politically motivated’ case in a bid to keep her away from politics and election.”Fakhrul alleged that Khaleda is not even getting minimum legal facilities.“Though she obtained bail in the primary case, her release is now being delayed by bringing one ‘false case’ after another to the fore. The government wants to keep her behind bars as long as its goal is not fulfilled,” he added. He alleged that the Awami League-led government’s goal is to cling to power by conducting another one-sided election like that of 5 January 2014. Criticising the recent incident of adulterating the gold kept in Bangladesh Bank’s vault, Fakhrul said the finance minister is giving shelter to those involved in widespread corruption.He also claimed that the finance minister is destroying country’s economy.
Journal information: Science (Phys.org)—A pair of physicists has shown that it is possible to transform disparate spin models into different types of just one simple model. In their paper published in the journal Science, Gemma De las Cuevas, with the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics and Toby Cubitt, with University College London, offer a proof to show that any spin model can be converted to the relatively simple Ising model. Stephanie Wehner with QuTech, Delft University of Technology offers a Perspectives piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue, outlining the proof and explaining how and why a universal spin model would be useful. © 2016 Phys.org The benefit of having a universal model, Wehner explains, is that it offers an alternative way for scientists to run their models, particularly on a computer. If a 3D model is extremely complex, for example, or requires an untenable number of cycles to run, there is a chance it could be configured to run as an Ising model. But she notes that it could also be used as a means for melding the work being done by physicists and computer scientists, helping to further explain the workings of nature. Explore further Citation: Physics pair show that Ising model can be used as a universal spin model (2016, March 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-physics-pair-ising-universal.html Spin models were first developed as a means to help explain the properties of magnetic materials—the magnetism in each atom originates from the spin of an unpaired electron within it. The first was created by Wilhelm Lenz, who handed it off to Ernest Ising, who used it to show that spins should undergo phase transitions below a certain temperature. Since that time, spin models have been developed for a wide variety of applications, perhaps most notably in particle physics. Now, in this new effort, De las Cuevas and Cutitt show that it is possible to transform any of these other newer models into the 2D Ising model, including 3D models.Their proof has two main parts, the first involved showing that any Ising model is equivalent to an instance of a satisfiability problem and showing a way to match such problems to an Ising model. The second part involved showing how any spin model could be converted to a satisfiability problem and then translated to an Ising model. Scientists explain the theory behind Ising superconductivity More information: G. De las Cuevas et al. Simple universal models capture all classical spin physics, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3326AbstractSpin models are used in many studies of complex systems because they exhibit rich macroscopic behavior despite their microscopic simplicity. Here, we prove that all the physics of every classical spin model is reproduced in the low-energy sector of certain “universal models,” with at most polynomial overhead. This holds for classical models with discrete or continuous degrees of freedom. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions for a spin model to be universal and show that one of the simplest and most widely studied spin models, the two-dimensional Ising model with fields, is universal. Our results may facilitate physical simulations of Hamiltonians with complex interactions. Universal models contain all models, just like white light contains all colors. Credit: Christian Hackenberger Universal models contain all models, just like white light contains all colors. Credit: Christian Hackenberger This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.